Then and Now: A Brief History of the Chicago ‘L’
With the announcement of Mayor Rahm Emanuel’s “Gateway to Millennium Park” ‘L’ station on Wabash (not to be confused with the Gateway on State Street), this month’s “Then and Now” will feature the story of the iconic Chicago ‘L’ as it transformed from a small steam powered locomotive in 1892 to one of the greatest public transportation networks in the world today, carrying over 231 million riders in 2012 alone.
Chicago was the fastest-growing city in the country during the late 19th century, and as downtown became increasingly congested with horses, carts and carriages, people began to realize they needed a more efficient means of transportation.
Elevated tracks appeared to be the right choice, as subways were too expensive to consider. And so the first 'L' train (then Chicago and South Side Rapid Transit Railroad) was built in 1892, and its inaugural journey took place on June 6, spanning 3.6 miles in 14 minutes.
At that point, the ‘L’ was just an ordinary steam powered train on raised tracks. That changed quickly with the invention of the third-rail electrical power system at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Jackson Park. The electric-powered train designed to transport guests around the fair was, remarkably, the first instance of the very same technology used on the Chicago 'L' today and around the world.
With the advent of this third-rail electric technology, the potential stock of the 'L' skyrocketed, and the second and third ‘L’ trains – Lake Street Elevated and Metropolitan West Side Elevated – were quickly constructed in 1893 and ’95. Despite this rapid expansion, however, the ‘L’ had yet to serve the central business district, due to regulations requiring a majority of owners’ permission to build downtown.
Enter magnate Charles Tyson Yerkes. Yerkes believed that the ‘L’ was destined to extend downtown, and eventually decided that he would be the man to do it. Sure enough, through clever financial maneuvering, Yerkes was able to earn a majority approval and construct much of the Union Loop by 1897. A few years later, service to the fourth ‘L’ – Northwestern Elevated – was connected to the Loop, and by 1921 amid multiple connections and extensions in all directions the ‘L’ assumed a shape much like that of the ‘L’ today.
Since the 1920's, the ‘L’ has undergone significant changes and expansions, including the State and Dearborn subway connections in the 30’s and 40’s, the creation of the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) in 1945, construction on the Dan Ryan and Congress Expressway medians, retirement of wooden cars and creation of air-conditioned cars, the extension to O’Hare and Midway airports, and the discontinuation of on-board conductors, among many others.
Today, the eight lines of the Chicago ‘L’ span 224.1 miles and serve on average 788,415 people per weekday, with 80,226 of those boardings in the Loop alone.
The elevated tracks, voted one of the seven wonders of Chicago by Tribune readers in 2005, have become a Chicago icon with worldwide recognition, with the downtown Loop at the center of it all.
Over a century since it all began, expansion and construction on the ‘L’ is still a regular topic of discussion in the city. The CTA’s “Red Line South Reconstruction Project” is due to complete this month, and proposals are expected soon for extension of the busiest line of the ‘L’ from 95th to 130th street to better serve the South Side community.
Projects such as these often raise some degree of controversy with the public. But controversy has followed the 'L' throughout its history. In 1897, the New York Academy of Medicine warned that the noise and disturbance from elevated tracks “prevented the normal development of children” among other dangers, and throughout its construction police and community leaders spoke against it for its potential to collapse or electrocute passengers.*
Most of the public concerns today are far better grounded in reality. Still, as it was in the 1890's, it's hard to say just what the future of the ‘L’ really is. Possibilities include Orange and Yellow line extensions, an airport express from State Street to O’Hare, or even an additional line to the currently 'L'-less southeastern part of the city.
If one thing’s for sure, though, the Chicago ‘L’ – noisy, wonderful, iconic, colorful, innovative, convenient or inconvenient – isn’t going away anytime soon.